Editorial 19 November World View 19 November Research Highlight 13 November Experiments in mice show that a regimen of low-fibre foods keeps the gut microbiome from bouncing back.
Research Highlight 11 November Research Highlight 15 November A network of protein fibres helps to prevent the all-important organelle from being bent out of shape. Research Highlight 07 November Research Highlight 14 November The city of Ur, located in modern-day Iraq, might at some points have covered more than eight times as much ground as previously estimated. News Round-Up 20 November News 19 November Researchers are increasingly using traces of genetic material in the wild to track endangered species.
News 20 November News 12 November The drug, which has already been given to hundreds of thousands of people in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, can now be distributed more widely. News 18 November News Feature 19 November News Feature 20 November Researchers grapple with the meaning of the first objects entering our Solar System from distant regions. Book Review 18 November An astronaut and an archaeologist explore the triumphs and disasters of space hardware. Meg Urry reviews.
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Book Review 19 November A hard-hitting study exposes the devastating effects of shame and discrimination. Julie Pulerwitz reviews. Book Review 20 November Comment 20 November Study the effects of earthquakes, floods and other natural hazards with sensitivity to ethical dilemmas and power imbalances. Correspondence 19 November Career Feature 20 November Technology Feature 18 November A new class of CRISPR-based tools efficiently corrects point mutations in cell lines, animal models and perhaps the clinic.
Where I Work 18 November Approximately A series of structures of a transposase catches it in action, and highlights how these proteins evolved for use in immune systems. Immunotherapy approaches seek to boost immune responses against cancer. A single antibody engineered to recognize three targets shows promise, when tested in animals, in improving the ability of T cells to target cancer.
Treatment options are limited for alcoholic hepatitis, a liver disease associated with high alcohol intake. Studies in mice reveal that the microorganisms responsible for this condition can be tackled by a viral treatment. Conventional technologies for virtual and augmented reality simulate interactive experiences through visual and auditory stimuli. A technology that adds sensations of touch could find uses in areas from gaming to prosthetic feedback. Article 20 November Article 09 October Interfaces for epidermal virtual reality technology are demonstrated that can communicate by programmable patterns of localized mechanical vibrations.
Article 14 October A real-space imaging technique that combines scanning transmission electron microscopy with an angle-resolved pixellated fast-electron detector is used to image the charge distribution in SrTiO 3 , BiFeO 3 and the junction between them. Depletion of Archaean atmospheric xenon in Xe relative to the modern atmosphere might indicate that a short burst of mantle activity took place around 2.
Article 06 November Danuvius guggenmosi moved using extended limb clambering, thus combining adaptations of bipeds and suspensory apes and providing evidence of the evolution of bipedalism and suspension climbing in the common ancestor of great apes and humans. Article 13 November A renewable barcoding system reveals the evolutionary dynamics of laboratory budding yeast, showing that fitness changes over time in a travelling wave of adaptation that can fluctuate owing to leapfrogging events. In patients with alcoholic hepatitis, cytolysin-positive Enterococcus faecalis strains are correlated with liver disease severity and increased mortality, and in mouse models these strains can be specifically targeted by bacteriophages.
Single-cell RNA sequencing is used to characterize and compare the functional diversity of cells from liver biopsies of human scarred and normal liver, and identifies markers for scar-associated macrophages and endothelial cells. Article 30 October A phospho-switch is identified in the shelterin subunit TRF2 that regulates transient recruitment of the RTEL1 helicase to, and release from, telomeres, and provides a narrow window during which RTEL1 can unwind t-loops to facilitate telomere replication.
Imaging of substrate transport by individual MhsT transporters, members of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter family of secondary transporters, at single- and multi-turnover resolution reveals that the rate-limiting step varies with the identity of the transported substrate. Analysis of multiple structures of the Helicoverpa zea DNA transposase Transib, determined by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, reveals the detailed pathway of the transposition reaction and sheds light on the evolution of the RAG recombinase.
Article 03 October The autoinhibited and active states of full-length BRAF in complexes with its substrate MEK1 and the protein are determined by cryo-electron microscopy. Author Correction 04 November At night, they slept in pairs in one of the stifling holes into which the bedroom was divided by partitions of board. Mary Anne Walkley fell ill on the Friday, died on Sunday, without, to the astonishment of Madame Elise, having previously completed the work in hand. The doctor, Mr. We will take the blacksmith as a type. If the poets were true, there is no man so hearty, so merry, as the blacksmith; he rises early and strikes his sparks before the sun; he eats and drinks and sleeps as no other man.
Working in moderation, he is, in fact, in one of the best of human positions, physically speaking. But we follow him into the city or town, and we see the stress of work on that strong man, and what then is his position in the death-rate of his country. In Marylebone, blacksmiths die at the rate of 31 per thousand per annum, or 11 above the mean of the male adults of the country in its entirety. The occupation, instinctive almost as a portion of human art, unobjectionable as a branch of human industry, is made by mere excess of work, the destroyer of the man.
He can strike so many blows per day, walk so many steps, breathe so many breaths, produce so much work, and live an average, say of fifty years; he is made to strike so many more blows, to walk so many more steps, to breathe so many more breaths per day, and to increase altogether a fourth of his life. He meets the effort; the result is, that producing for a limited time a fourth more work, he dies at 37 for Constant capital, the means of production, considered from the standpoint of the creation of surplus-value, only exist to absorb labour, and with every drop of labour a proportional quantity of surplus-labour.
While they fail to do this, their mere existence causes a relative loss to the capitalist, for they represent during the time they lie fallow, a useless advance of capital. And this loss becomes positive and absolute as soon as the intermission of their employment necessitates additional outlay at the recommencement of work. The prolongation of the working-day beyond the limits of the natural day, into the night, only acts as a palliative.
It quenches only in a slight degree the vampire thirst for the living blood of labour. To appropriate labour during all the 24 hours of the day is, therefore, the inherent tendency of capitalist production. But as it is physically impossible to exploit the same individual labour-power constantly during the night as well as the day, to overcome this physical hindrance, an alternation becomes necessary between the workpeople whose powers are exhausted by day, and those who are used up by night. This alternation may be effected in various ways; e. It is well known that this relay system, this alternation of two sets of workers, held full sway in the full-blooded youth-time of the English cotton manufacture, and that at the present time it still flourishes, among others, in the cotton spinning of the Moscow district.
The working-time here includes, besides the 24 hours of the 6 working-days, a great part also of the 24 hours of Sunday. The workers consist of men and women, adults and children of both sexes.
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The ages of the children and young persons run through all intermediate grades, from 8 in some cases from 6 to In some branches of industry, the girls and women work through the night together with the males. Placing on one side the generally injurious influence of night-labour,  the duration of the process of production, unbroken during the 24 hours, offers very welcome opportunities of exceeding the limits of the normal working-day, e.
These hours are, indeed, in some cases, not only cruelly but even incredibly long for children. Amongst a number of boys it will, of course, not unfrequently happen that one or more are from some cause absent. When this happens, their place is made up by one or more boys, who work in the other turn.
That this is a well understood system is plain Another, at 9 years old, sometimes made three hour shifts running, and, when 10, has made two days and two nights running. Live five miles off.
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Slept on the floor of the furnace, over head, with an apron under me, and a bit of a jacket over me. The two other days I have been here at 6 a.
Before I came here I was nearly a year at the same work at some works in the country. Began there, too, at 3 on Saturday morning — always did, but was very gain [near] home, and could sleep at home.
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At the forges and in the rolling mills the hands work night and day, in relays, but all the other parts of the work are day-work, i. In the forge the hours are from 12 to Some of the hands always work in the night, without any alternation of day and night work We do not find any difference in the health of those who work regularly by night and those who work by day, and probably people can sleep better if they have the same period of rest than if it is changed About 20 of the boys under the age of 18 work in the night sets We could not well do without lads under 18 working by night.
The objection would be the increase in the cost of production Skilled hands and the heads in every department are difficult to get, but of lads we could get any number But from the small proportion of boys that we employ, the subject i. Ellis, one of the firm of Messrs. With reference to the proposed alteration of the law, Mr. Ellis says:. But we do not think that any line could be drawn over the age of 12, at which boys could be dispensed with for night-work. But we would sooner be prevented from employing boys under the age of 13, or even so high as 14, at all, than not be allowed to employ boys that we do have at night.
Those boys who work in the day sets must take their turn in the night sets also, because the men could not work in the night sets only; it would ruin their health We think, however, that night-work in alternate weeks is no harm. Our objections to not allowing boys under 18 to work at night, would be on account of the increase of expense, but this is the only reason. What mealy-mouthed phraseology!
Labour is scarce here, and might fall short if there were such a regulation. The managing director had handed in his evidence to the Government Commissioner, Mr. White, in writing. Later he found it convenient to suppress the MS. White, however, has a good memory. He remembered quite clearly that for the Messrs. On the same subject Mr. Sanderson, of the firm of Sanderson, Bros. The chief would be the increase of cost from employing men instead of boys. I cannot say what this would be, but probably it would not be enough to enable the manufacturers to raise the price of steel, and consequently it would fall on them, as of course the men what queer-headed folk!
The men would not like so well not to have boys under them, as men would be less obedient. Besides, boys must begin young to learn the trade.
Leaving day-work alone open to boys would not answer this purpose. And why not? Why could not boys learn their handicraft in the day-time? Your reason?
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Each man would want half of this profit. In other words, Messrs. Sanderson would have to pay part of the wages of the adult men out of their own pockets instead of by the night-work of the boys. Sanderson have something else to make besides steel.