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Article metrics. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subscribe Search My Account Login. Abstract FEW fields of investigation in organic chemistry have shown more rapid or more spectacular advances than has been the case with the carbohydrate group. The Chemistry of the Polysaccharides By Dr. The released starch consists of two fractions. Molecules of amylose are linear chains of several thousand glucose units joined by alpha C-1 to C-4 glycoside bonds. Amylose solutions are actually dispersions of hydrated helical micelles.
The majority of the starch is a much higher molecular weight substance, consisting of nearly a million glucose units, and called amylopectin. Molecules of amylopectin are branched networks built from C-1 to C-4 and C-1 to C-6 glycoside links, and are essentially water insoluble. Representative structural formulas for amylose and amylopectin are shown above. The branching in this diagram is exaggerated, since on average, branches only occur every twenty five glucose units.
Hydrolysis of starch, usually by enzymatic reactions, produces a syrupy liquid consisting largely of glucose. When cornstarch is the feedstock, this product is known as corn syrup. It is widely used to soften texture, add volume, prohibit crystallization and enhance the flavor of foods.
Glycogen is the glucose storage polymer used by animals. It has a structure similar to amylopectin, but is even more highly branched about every tenth glucose unit. The degree of branching in these polysaccharides may be measured by enzymatic or chemical analysis. Carbohydr Res 2 — Google Scholar.
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Chemistry of Polysaccharides - CRC Press Book
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