London: Edward Arnold and Co. By John Honeyman. Reprints and Permissions. By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.
Article metrics. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subscribe Search My Account Login. Abstract FEW fields of investigation in organic chemistry have shown more rapid or more spectacular advances than has been the case with the carbohydrate group. The Chemistry of the Polysaccharides By Dr. The released starch consists of two fractions. Molecules of amylose are linear chains of several thousand glucose units joined by alpha C-1 to C-4 glycoside bonds. Amylose solutions are actually dispersions of hydrated helical micelles.
The majority of the starch is a much higher molecular weight substance, consisting of nearly a million glucose units, and called amylopectin. Molecules of amylopectin are branched networks built from C-1 to C-4 and C-1 to C-6 glycoside links, and are essentially water insoluble. Representative structural formulas for amylose and amylopectin are shown above. The branching in this diagram is exaggerated, since on average, branches only occur every twenty five glucose units.
Hydrolysis of starch, usually by enzymatic reactions, produces a syrupy liquid consisting largely of glucose. When cornstarch is the feedstock, this product is known as corn syrup. It is widely used to soften texture, add volume, prohibit crystallization and enhance the flavor of foods.
Glycogen is the glucose storage polymer used by animals. It has a structure similar to amylopectin, but is even more highly branched about every tenth glucose unit. The degree of branching in these polysaccharides may be measured by enzymatic or chemical analysis. Carbohydr Res 2 — Google Scholar.
Carbohydr Res 1 :1—14 Google Scholar. Carbohydr Polym 48 1 —28 Google Scholar. Black GE, Fox A Recent progress in the analysis of sugar monomers from complex matrices using chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry or stand-alone tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1—2 —60 Google Scholar.
Chimia Google Scholar. Bohrn R, Potthast A et al Synthesis and testing of a novel fluorescence label for carboxyls in carbohydrates and cellulosics. Synlett — Google Scholar. Biomacromolecules 7 6 — PubMed Google Scholar. Vib Spectrosc 40 2 — Google Scholar. Campa C, Coslovi A et al Overview on advances in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of carbohydrates: a tabulated review. Electrophoresis — PubMed Google Scholar.
Carbohydr Polym 42 3 — Google Scholar.
Chandra K, Ghosh K et al Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe green tomato Lycopersicon esculentum. Charlwood J, Birrell H et al A probe for the versatile analysis and characterization of N-linked oligosaccharides. Chen F-TA, Evangelista RA Analysis of mono- and oligosaccharide isomers derivatized with 9-aminopyrene-1,4,6-trisulfonate by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence.
Anal Chim Acta —21 Google Scholar. Chen G, Zhang L et al Determination of glycosides and sugars in Moutan Cortex by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.
Chen Y, Xie M-Y et al Purification, composition analysis and antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma atrum. Food Chem 1 — Google Scholar. Cheng X, Zhang S et al Determination of carbohydrates by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection at a nano-nickel oxide modified carbon paste electrode. Food Chem — Google Scholar. Chiesa C, Horvath C Capillary zone electrophoresis of malto-oligosaccharides derivatized with 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid.
J Chromatogr A 2 — Google Scholar. Chu Q, Fu L et al Fast determination of sugars in Coke and Diet Coke by miniaturized capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection. Ciucanu I, Kerek F A simple and rapid method for the permethylation of carbohydrates. Cortacero-Ramirez S, Segura-Carretero A et al Analysis of carbohydrates in beverages by capillary electrophoresis with precolumn derivatization and UV detection. Cui SW Structural analysis of polysaccharides. In: Cui SW ed Food carbohydrates - chemistry, physical properties and applications.
Chemistry of Polysaccharides - CRC Press Book
J Chim Anal Google Scholar. Dabek-Zlotorzynska E, Dlouhy JF Capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection of organic anions using 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid. J Chromatogr A 1 — Google Scholar. Dahlman O, Jacobs A et al Analysis of carbohydrates in wood and pulps employing enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent capillary zone electrophoresis.
- A Sentimental Journey (Penguin Classics).
- My Life as Crocodile Junk Food (The Incredible Worlds of Wally McDoogle)?
- Proto-Polysaccharides | Center for Chemical Evolution!
- What are Polysaccharides?;
- Le Rêve français: Discours et entretien (2009-2011) (HC SCIENC HUMAI) (French Edition)!
De Ruiter GA, Schols HA et al Carbohydrate analysis of water-soluble uronic acid-containing polysaccharides with high-performance anion-exchange chromatography using methanolysis combined with TFA hydrolysis is superior to four other methods. Dicke R, Rahn K et al Starch derivatives of high degree of functionalization. Part 2. Determination of the functionalization pattern of p-toluenesulfonyl starch by peracylation and NMR spectroscopy.
stabmepoume.tk Carbohydr Polym 45 1 —51 Google Scholar. Doering H Determination of carboxyl groups in cellulose by complexometry. Das Papier — Google Scholar. In: Buschow et al. Elsevier, Oxford, pp — Google Scholar. Dong S, Zhang S et al Simultaneous determination of sugars and ascorbic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection at a carbon paste electrode modified with polyethylene glycol and Cu2O. Dunbrant SSO Determination of primary and secondary xanthate groups in cellulose-xanthate.
Dupont A-L, Mortha G Comparative evaluation of size-exclusion chromatography and viscometry for the characterisation of cellulose. Ebringerova A Structural diversity and application potential of hemicelluloses. Macromol Symp —12 Google Scholar. Ebringerova A, Hromadkova Z et al Hemicellulose. Adv Polym Sci —67 Google Scholar. Eremeeva T Size-exclusion chromatography of enzymatically treated cellulose and related polysaccharides: a review.
Carbohydr Polym 36 4 — Google Scholar. Polym Bull — Google Scholar. Tetrahedron Asymmetry 11 24 — Google Scholar. Cellulose 9 2 — Google Scholar. In: Provder T ed Chromatography of Polymers, vol Gohdes M, Mischnick P Determination of the substitution pattern in the polymer chain of cellulose sulfates. Carbohydr Res 1 — Google Scholar. Gohdes M, Mischnick P et al Methylation analysis of cellulose sulphates.
Carbohydr Polym 33 2—3 — Google Scholar. Gonera A, Goclik V et al Preparation and structural characterisation of O-aminopropyl starch and amylose. Grill E, Huber C et al Capillary zone electrophoresis of p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives of aldoses, ketoses and uronic acids. Cellulose 5 1 —49 Google Scholar.
Harding SE Analysis of polysaccharides by ultracentrifugation. In: Heinze T ed Polysaccharides I - structure, characterisation and use. Springer, Berlin, pp — Google Scholar. Hase S, Ibuki T et al Reexamination of the pyridylamination used for fluorescence labeling of oligosaccharides and its application to glycoproteins. Heinrich JPM b Determination of the substitution pattern in the polymer chain of cellulose acetates.
Heinze U, Heinze T et al Synthesis and structure characterization of 2,3-O-carboxymethylcellulose. Macromol Chem Phys 4 — Google Scholar. Heinze U, Schaller J et al Characterisation of regioselectively functionalized 2,3-O-carboxymethyl cellulose by enzymatic and chemical methods.
Cellulose — Google Scholar. Henniges U, Prohaska T et al A fluorescence labeling approach to assess the deterioration state of aged papers. Cellulose 13 4 — Google Scholar. Holfstetter-Kuhn S, Paulus A et al Influence of borate complexation on the electrophoretic behavior of carbohydrates in capillary electrophoresis. Anal Chem — Google Scholar. Honda S, Suzuki S et al a Capillary zone electrophoresis of reducing mono- and oligo-saccharides as the borate complexes of their 3-methylphenylpyrazolinone derivatives.
Honda S, Yamamoto K et al b High-performance capillary zone electrophoresis of carbohydrates in the presence of alkaline earth metal ions.